|Automation of fast craft|
Автор: Журнал «Speed at Sea»
Место размещения: Журнал «Speed at Sea», Великобритания – 2001, N 10
Systems developed, manufactured and tested by Aurora are successfully operated on more than 40 types of high-speed combatant ships (Zubr, Sivuch, Molniya, Sokol, Tsiklon, Kolkhida, Mirazh etc.).
High-speed combatant ships are the largest ship category in the naval inventory of many nations. For small high-speed craft, Aurora has developed promising self-contained automatic steering devices as well as systems for coordinated control of running speed, vertical rudders, controllable hydrofoils and interceptors. The aforementioned systems make it possible to improve ship maneuvering characteristics and provide comfortable conditions for the ship crew during maneuvering at maximum speeds.
The use of automatically controlled interceptors and hydrofoils on high- speed combatant ships decreases hull resistance at high speeds. In running conditions close to gliding the decrease of hydrodynamic resistance significantly depends on a ship's spatial altitude. The running and maneuvering characteristics of such ships depend to a large extent on dynamic properties of the control system. Relationship between list, trim, yawing rate and running speed ships of this class is highly significant, which does not make it possible separately fulfill control tasks for each of the aforementioned parameters.
The results of testing of one of the first stabilization systems, carried out in 2000-2001, confirmed the influence of trim on power consumed by the power plant at high speeds. Improvement of controllability and seaworthiness, as well as an increase in power-plant efficiency for ships of this class can be provided by systems of coordinated control over ship motion control hardware, including rudders and interceptors.
The structure of a coordinating control system (CCS) has been developed on the basis of a target-oriented function combining the course, list, trim and running speed control functions. The CCS upper level includes a general ship motion altitude control system intended for reasons of maneuvering safety, to adapt the system parameters to wind-wave disturbance conditions and generate limitations on adjustable angular motion coordinators.
The second level involves four subsystems subordinated to the upper level and intended for course, list, trim and running speed control. Each sub- system controls subordinated hard-ware and has altitude sensors of its own, i.e. has a local feedback.
The upper coordinating level is effective if the monitoring of control processes is ensured. Subsystem control tasks are developed on the basis of a situation (forecasting) model. The described method of decomposing tasks and respectively, information support actuating facilities was used to develop an integrated motion control system for high-speed naval ships.
One of the most important components of the integrated motion control system is an integrated bridge control system (IBCS). It is the main management element in routine activities of the ship's navigation control room personnel. The integrated bridge control system fulfills the following tasks: control of the ship and its technical facilities at sea: presentation and analysis of the local situation: navigation; navigation safety monitoring; maneuvering. The integrated bridge control system is intended
• collect, process and display tactical situation data;
• ensure ship navigation with due regard for navigation safety;
• exercise control over the ship's course and speed, ensure remote control, and monitor the main power plant's basic parameters, etc. The integrated bridge control system consists of automated modular workstations for the captain, power-plant control officer (watch officer) and steering engine and interceptor control steersman. In the automated operating mode, the integrated bridge control system enables the captain to exercise control over:
• ship navigation and maneuvering safety;
• movement along the assigned course while executing a combat mission;
• state of the ship, as well as state and operating conditions of shipboard systems and complexes.
The following non-automated functions are performed by means of IBCS instruments and devices:
• delivery of information about the state of the degaussing gear and the length of the veered anchor chain;
• control of the intercom equipment and global marine communications and safety system;
• control of the siren, sound and light warning systems, side lights, the alarm system, as well as outdoor illumination and main control room screen wipers.
The integrated bridge control system meets up-to-date requirements for integration of upper-level control facilities and ensures realization of the ship's combat properties in terms of ship control.
The main design concept implemented in the integrated bridge control system is integration of terminal data display systems, shipboard system control facilities, weapons and hardware into a unified combat system. The integrated bridge control system is a powerful high-performance redundant computer system capable of processing data received from various sources.
To provide information support for main control room personnel, the integrated bridge control system is interfaced with shipboard radio- electronic equipment via PAL, MIL-STD, RS-232, RS-422, RS-485. Provision is made in the integrated bridge control for display of primary radar (unprocessed) data, as well as mapping and TV data. Tactical situation data is displayed on automated workstations as data cards. The Aurora Research and Production Association works out design documentation for integrated control and maneuvering systems for individual ship projects, manufactures, and delivers them to customers within the agreed terms.
This advertising material is based on the article of Vitold Voitetsky, Director General of Aurora, Dr.Sc. (Technology)